Zhu, Y.L., T. Wang , H. J. Wang, 2016: Relative contribution of the anthropogenic forcing and natural variability to the interdecadal shift of climate during the late 1970s and 1990s. Science Bulletin, 61, 416-424
Zhu, Y. L., T. Wang, and J. H. Ma, 2016: Influence of internal decadal variability on the summer rainfall in eastern China as simulated by CCSM4. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 33, 706-714
Zhu, Y. L., and T. Wang, 2016: The relationship between the Arctic Oscillation and ENSO as simulated by CCSM4. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 9, 198-203
Miao, J. P., T. Wang*, Y. L. Zhu, J. Z. Min, H. J. Wang, D. Guo, 2016: Response of the East Asian winter monsoon to strong tropical volcanic eruptions. Journal of Climate, 29, 5041-5057
Zhu, Y. L., H. J. Wang, J. H. Ma, T. Wang, J. Q. Sun, 2015: Contribution of the phase transition of Pacific Decadal Oscillation to the late 1990s’ shift in East China summer rainfall. Journal of Geophysical Research, 120, 8817-8827
Yu, E.T., T. Wang, Y. Q. Gao, and W. L. Xiang, 2014: Precipitation Pattern of the Mid-Holocene Simulated by a High-Resolution Regional Climate Model. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, doi: 10.1007/s00376-013-3178-9,
Early proxy-based studies suggested that there potentially occurred a “southern drought/northern flood” (SDNF) over East China in the mid-Holocene (from roughly 7000 to 5000 years before present). In this study, we used both global and regional atmospheric circulation models to demonstrate that the SDNF—namely, the precipitation increases over North China and decreases over the the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley—could have taken place in the mid-Holocene. We found that the SDNF in the mid-Holocene was likely caused by the lower SST in the Pacific. The lowered SST and the higher air temperature over mainland China increased the land--sea thermal contrast and, as a result, strengthened the East Asian summer monsoon and enhanced the precipitation over North China.
Ge, J.Y., Z. T. Guo, D. Zhao, Y. Zhang, T. Wang, L. Yi, C. L. Deng, 2014: Spatial variations in paleowind direction during the last glacial period in north China reconstructed from variations in the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility of loess deposits. Tectonophysics, 629, 353–361
Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of Chinese loess is considered to be an effective tool for determining paleowind direction. However, the relationship between AMS and the paleowind direction is still a matter of debate. This study reports the results of AMS measurements of Chinese loess deposited during the last glacial period on slopes of varying slope angles and orientations. The sites are located on the Chinese Loess Plateau, in West Qinling, and on the eastern margin of Qilian Mountain. The results show that within the same region, magnetic lineations are clustered along similar orientations despite differences in slope exposure and slope angle, but that different regions exhibit different directions of magnetic lineation. These results suggest that the alignment of the magnetic grains during deposition of the eolian deposits was determined by air circulation rather than by water flow on the surface of the slopes, and therefore that the AMS of Chinese loess can be used to determine paleowind directions. In addition, our results indicate that the AMS of Chinese loess is determined mainly by the patterns of regional surface wind flow that occurred during dust accumulation rather than by the uniform pattern of large-scale atmospheric circulation. In addition, since wind direction is influenced significantly by regional topography, the AMS of Chinese loess may have the potential to detect significant changes in past regional topography.
Wang, T., and H.J. Wang, 2013: Mid-Holocene Asian summer climate and its responses to cold ocean surface simulated in the PMIP2 OAGCMs experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 4117-4128
In this study, the outputs from four Ocean–Atmosphere Coupled General Circulation Model (OAGCM) experiments within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) and four sets of Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) experiments were used to analyze the Asian summer climate during the mid-Holocene (6 ka, about 6000 years ago). Additionally, the role of the orbital forcings and the effects of a cold ocean surface for the 6 ka were investigated by comparing the AGCM simulations forced by different combinations of forcing parameters. The results indicated that in the 6 ka summer, the orbital forcings were the prime drivers of the increased temperature and precipitation as well as the strengthened summer monsoon over the Asian continent. On the other hand, these different orbital forcings also resulted in a colder Indian Ocean–northwestern Pacific during this period. Our results suggested that this cold ocean surface could reduce the warming amplitude and precipitation enhancement over the Asian monsoon area in the 6 ka summer. The changes caused by the different ocean surface conditions were comparable with simulated 6 ka climate changes. The cold ocean surface also suppressed the Asian summer monsoon circulations. Therefore, the influences from anomalous ocean surface conditions played an important role on regulating the Asian summer climate during the 6 ka. In addition, it was found that the summer climate in the South Asian monsoon area was more sensitive to the changes in the orbital forcings and ocean surface conditions than that in the East Asian monsoon area.
Wang, T., Y. Liu, and W. Huang, 2013: Last Glacial Maximum Sea Surface Temperatures: A Model-Data Comparison. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 6, 233-239
In this study, we investigated changes in Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) sea surface temperature simulated by the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) muitlmodels and reconstructed by the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface (MARGO) project, focusing on the model-data comparison. The results showed that the PMIP models produced greater ocean cooling in the North Pacific and Tropical Ocean than that in the MARGO, particularly in the Northwestern Pacific, where the model-data mismatch was larger. All the models failed to capture the anomalous east-west SST gradient in the North Atlantic. In addition, large discrepancies among the models could be observed in the mid-latitude ocean, particularly for the models in the second phase of the PMIP. Although they gave some better agreement with the MARGO, the latest models in the third phase of the PMIP could not show substantial progresses in simulating the LGM ocean surface condition. That is, the improvements in the modeling community were still needed to describe the SST in order to better understand climate during the LGM.
Wang, T., H. J. Wang, O. H. Otterå, Y. Q. Gao, L. L. Suo, T. Furevik, and L. Yu, 2013: Anthropogenic agent implicated as a prime driver of shift in precipitation in eastern China in the late 1970s. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 12433-12450
Observation shows that eastern China experienced an interdecadal shift in the summer precipitation during the second half of the 20th century. The summer precipitation increased in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, whereas it decreased in northern China. Here we use a coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation model and multi-ensemble simulations to show that the interdecadal shift is mainly caused by the anthropogenic forcing. The rapidly increasing greenhouse gases induce a notable Indian Ocean warming, causing a westward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and a southward displacement of the East Asia westerly jet (EAJ) on an interdecadal timescale, leading to more precipitation in Yangtze River valley. At the same time the surface cooling effects from the stronger convection, higher precipitation and rapidly increasing anthropogenic aerosols contribute to a reduced summer land–sea thermal contrast. Due to the changes in the WPSH, the EAJ and the land–sea thermal contrast, the East Asian summer monsoon weakened resulting in drought in northern China. Consequently, an anomalous precipitation pattern started to emerge over eastern China in the late 1970s. According to the model, the natural forcing played an opposite role in regulating the changes in WPSH and EAJ, and postponed the anthropogenically forced climate changes in eastern China. The Indian Ocean sea surface temperature is crucial to the response, and acts as a bridge to link the external forcings and East Asian summer climate together on a decadal and longer timescales. Our results further highlight the dominant roles of anthropogenic forcing agents in shaping interdecadal changes of the East Asian climate during the second half of the 20th century.
Wang, T., O.H. Otterå, Y.Q. Gao, and H.J. Wang, 2012: The response of the North Pacific Decadal Variability to strong tropical volcanic eruptions. Climate Dynamics, 39, 2917-2936
In this study, the effects of volcanic forcing on North Pacific climate variability, on interannual to decadal time scales, are examined using climate model simulations covering the last 600 years. The model used is the Bergen Climate Model, a fully coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model. It is found that natural external forcings, such as tropical strong volcanic eruptions (SVEs) and variations in total solar irradiance, play an important role in regulating North Pacific Decadal Variability (NPDV). In response to tropical SVEs the lower stratospheric pole–to–equator temperature gradient is enhanced. The North polar vortex is strengthened, which forces a significant positive Arctic Oscillation (AO). At the same time, dipole zonal wind anomalies associated with strong polar vortex propagate downward from the lower stratosphere. Through positive feedbacks in the troposphere, the surface westerly winds across the central North Pacific are significantly weakened, and positive sea level pressure anomalies are formed in the North Pacific. This anomalous surface circulation results in changes in the net heat fluxes and the oceanic advection across the North Pacific. As a result of this, warm water converges in the subtropical western North Pacific, where the surface waters in addition are heated by significantly reduced latent and sensible heat fluxes from the ocean. In the eastern and high–latitude North Pacific the ocean loses more heat, and large–scale decreases in sea surface temperatures are found. The overall response of this chain of events is that the North Pacific enters a negative phase of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and this negative phase of the PDO is maintained for several years. It is thus concluded that the volcanic forcing plays a key role in the phasing of the PDO. The model results furthermore highlight the important role of troposphere–stratosphere coupling, tropical–extratropical teleconnections and extratropical ocean–atmosphere interactions for describing NPDV.
Jiang, D., X. Lang, Z. Tian, and T. Wang, 2012: Considerable model–data mismatch in temperature over China during the mid-Holocene: Results of PMIP simulations. Journal of Climate, 25, 4135–4153
Using the experiments undertaken by 36 climate models participating in the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), this study examines annual and seasonal surface temperatures over China during the mid-Holocene. Compared to the present or preindustrial climate, 35 out of the 36 PMIP models<br /> reproduced colder-than-baseline annual temperature, with an average cooling of 0.4 K, during that period. Seasonal temperature change followed closely the change in incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere over China during the mid-Holocene. Temperature was reduced (elevated) in boreal winter and spring (summer) in all of the PMIP models, with an average of 1.4 K (1.0 K) at the national scale. Colder (warmer)-than-baseline temperatures were derived from 14 of the 16 atmosphere-only (18 of the 20 coupled) models during the mid-Holocene boreal autumn. Interactive ocean was found to lead to a warming effect on annual (0.3 K), boreal winter (0.5 K), and boreal autumn (0.7 K) temperatures, with reference to the atmosphere-only models. Interactive vegetation had little impact in terms of six pairs of coupled models with and without vegetation effects. The above results are in stark contrast to warmer-than-present annual and winter climate conditions as derived from multiproxy data for the mid-Holocene. Coupled models generally perform better than atmosphere-only models.
Wang, T.,H.J. Wang,and D.B. Jiang, 2010: Mid-Holocene East Asian summer climate as simulated by the PMIP2 models. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 288, 93-102
In the present study, datasets derived from twelve coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation models (OAGCMs) in the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase two were used to analyze the East Asian summer climate during the mid-Holocene (about 6,000 calendar years ago). On the whole, the OAGCMs reproduced warmer and wetter summer climate conditions in East Asia during the mid-Holocene. The multi-model ensemble showed that in East Asia, the regionally-averaged summer surface air temperature (SAT) increased by 0.89°C, summer precipitation was 5.8% higher, and an obviously strengthened southerly wind corresponded to a strong summer monsoon in the mid-Holocene when compared to preindustrial levels. The data-model comparison in China reveals a good agreement between the OAGCMs’ results and the reconstructed changes in the summer SAT in East China during the mid-Holocene. In North China, the simulated SAT anomalies are 0.5°C lower overall than reconstruction. In contrast, the OAGCMs fail to capture the strongest warming in the southern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. On the other hand, the simulated precipitation agrees well with proxy data except for in the central parts of China, where the simulated summer precipitation disagrees in sign with reconstruction. In addition, there is a large spread among the simulations, particularly over and around the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, and inter-model discrepancies are larger for precipitation than for SAT as a whole.
王会军, 王涛, 姜大膀, 富元海, 2009: 我国气候变化将比模式预期的小吗?. 第四纪研究, 29, 1011-1014
从当今国际上不同的气候系统模式模拟的全新世大暖期和末次盛冰期我国气候变化量级和复原资料结果的对比，以及从目前气候变化的趋势（包括温室气体、气温、 海洋温度、海平面高度、冰川等），来评述我国区域气候未来变化的量级。从以上两个方面的情况看，我国区域的未来气候变化量级可能比现有模式预估的还要大。 文章最后讨论了我国的气候变化脆弱区以及关键的气候变化要素问题。
王涛, 徐鸣洁, 王良书, 刘绍文, 胡旭芝, 2007: 鄂尔多斯及邻区航磁异常特征及其大地构造意义. 地球物理学报, 50（1）, 163-170