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姓 名:田芝平
职 务
职 称:助理研究员
研究方向:古气候模拟
进所时间:0000-00-00
教育
2005.9-2009.7,成都信息工程学院,大气科学系,获理学学士学位;
2009.9-2014.7,中国科学院大气物理研究所,气象学,获理学博士学位
研究经历
2014.7至今,中国科学院大气物理研究所,助理研究员
任职经历

研究项目

重要著作
1) Jiang, D., X. Lang, Z. Tian, and D. Guo, 2011: Last glacial maximum climate over China from PMIP simulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 309, 347-357.
2) Zhang, R., D. Jiang, X. Liu, and Z. Tian, 2012: Modeling the climate effects of different subregional uplifts within the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer monsoon evolution. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57, 4617-4626.
3) 田芝平,姜大膀,张冉,隋月, 2012: CCSM4.0的长期积分试验及其对东亚和中国气候模拟的评估. 大气科学, 36, 619-632.
4) Jiang, D., X. Lang, Z. Tian, and T. Wang, 2012: Considerable model-data mismatch in temperature over China during the mid-Holocene: Results of PMIP simulations. Journal of Climate, 25, 4135-4153.
5) 张冉,姜大膀,田芝平, 2013: 中上新世是否存在“永久厄尔尼诺”状态——一个耦合模式结果. 第四纪研究, 33, 1130-1137.
6) Sui Y., D. Jiang, and Z. Tian, 2013: Latest update of the climatology and changes in the seasonal distribution of precipitation over China. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 113, 599-610.
7) Jiang, D., X. Lang, Z. Tian, and L. Ju, 2013: Mid-Holocene East Asian summer monsoon strengthening: Insights from Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 369, 422-429.
8) 田芝平,姜大膀, 2013: 不同分辨率CCSM4对东亚和中国气候模拟能力分析. 大气科学, 37, 171-186, doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.12050.
9) Jiang, D., and Z. Tian, 2013: East Asian monsoon change for the 21st century: Results of CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58, 1427-1435.
10) Jiang, D., Z. Tian, and X. Lang, 2013: Mid-Holocene net precipitation changes over China: Model-data comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews, 82, 102-120.
11) Tian, Z., and D. Jiang, 2013: Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia. Climate of the Past, 9, 2153-2171, doi:10.5194/cp-9-2153-2013.
12) Tian, Z., and D. Jiang, 2015: Mid-Holocene ocean feedback on global monsoon area and precipitation. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 8, 29-32, doi:10.3878/AOSL20140068.
13) 田芝平,姜大膀, 2015: 全新世中期和末次冰盛期中国季风区面积和季风降水变化. 科学通报, 60, 400-410, doi:10.1360/N972014-00718.
14) Li, X., D. Jiang, Z. Zhang, R. Zhang, Z. Tian, and Q. Yan, 2015: Mid-Pliocene westerlies from PlioMIP simulations. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 32, 909-923, doi:10.1007/s00376-014-4171-7.
15) Jiang, D., Z. Tian, and X. Lang, 2015: Mid-Holocene global monsoon area and precipitation from PMIP simulations. Climate Dynamics, 44, 2493-2512, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2175-8.
16) Jiang, D., Z. Tian, X. Lang, M. Kageyama, and G. Ramstein, 2015: The concept of global monsoon applied to the last glacial maximum: A multi-model analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews, 126, 126-139.
17) Tian, Z., and D. Jiang, 2015: Revisiting mid-Holocene temperature over China using PMIP3 simulations. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 8, 358-364, doi:10.3878/AOSL20150040.
18) Jiang, D., Z. Tian, and X. Lang, 2016: Reliability of climate models for China through the IPCC Third to Fifth Assessment Reports. International Journal of Climatology, 36(3), 1114-1133, doi:10.1002/joc.4406.
19) Tian, Z., and D. Jiang, 2016: Revisiting last glacial maximum climate over China and East Asian monsoon using PMIP3 simulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 453, 115-126, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.04.020.
20) Tian, Z., T. Li, D. Jiang, and L. Chen, 2017: Causes of ENSO weakening during the mid-Holocene. Journal of Climate, 30(17), 7049-7070, doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-16-0899.1.

代表著作:

1) Jiang, D., Z. Tian, and X. Lang, 2016: Reliability of climate models for China through the IPCC Third to Fifth Assessment Reports. International Journal of Climatology, 36(3), 1114–1133, doi:10.1002/joc.4406 <摘要> PDF

Based on observation and reanalysis data, 77 coupled global climate models (GCMs) participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third (TAR), Fourth (AR4), and Fifth (AR5) Assessment Reports are evaluated in terms of their ability to simulate the mean state and year-to-year variability of surface air temperature at 2 m and precipitation over China and the climatological East Asian monsoon for the late decades of the 20th century. Results show that GCMs reliably reproduce the geographical distribution of the variables considered. Compared with observations, however, most GCMs have topography-related cold biases (although these are smaller than those found in previous studies), excessive precipitation, an underestimated southeast-northwest precipitation gradient, an overestimated magnitude and spatial variability of the interannual variability of temperature and precipitation, and an inadequate strength of the East Asian monsoon circulation. Pairwise comparison reveals that GCMs continue to improve from the TAR via the AR4 to the AR5 for temperature, but have little change for precipitation and the East Asian monsoon. The ability of GCMs varies with season and is affected to certain degree by their horizontal resolutions. Both the arithmetic mean and the median of multiple GCMs are little affected by filtering GCMs in terms of their ability, and the multi-model mean outperforms most of individual GCMs in every respect.

2) Tian, Z., and D. Jiang, 2016: Revisiting last glacial maximum climate over China and East Asian monsoon using PMIP3 simulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 453, 115-126, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2016.04.020 <摘要> PDF

Using simulations performed by all available climate models participating in the latest Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) phase 3 (PMIP3), we revisited the climate over China and the East Asian monsoon during the last glacial maximum (LGM; 21,000 years ago). Similar to previous results obtained from the PMIP phases 1 and 2 (PMIP1/2) models, all nine models reproduced colder than the pre-industrial annual and seasonal temperatures over China during the LGM and underestimated the annual cooling as evidenced by proxy data. The LGM annual and seasonal precipitation and evaporation over China consistently decreased in the models, whereas the very small LGM change in net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation) differed among models. The annual net precipitation change during the LGM was broadly consistent with reconstructed moisture conditions over most parts of China, especially over the western Tibetan Plateau where the PMIP1/2 models disagreed with the proxy data. Moreover, the LGM winter monsoon circulation weakened (strengthened) over the East Asian continent in four (one) of five models; the summer monsoon circulation generally weakened in two models, whereas it weakened north and strengthened south of about 30N over East Asia in three models. The spatial patterns of the LGM change in East Asian winter and summer monsoons in the PMIP3 models differed somewhat from those in the PMIP1/2 simulations.

3) Jiang, D., Z. Tian, and X. Lang, 2015: Mid-Holocene global monsoon area and precipitation from PMIP simulations. Climate Dynamics, 44, 2493-2512, doi:10.1007/s00382-014-2175-8 <摘要> PDF

Towards a better insight into orbital-scale changes in global monsoon, here we examine global monsoon area (GMA) and precipitation (GMP) as well as GMP intensity (GMPI) in the mid-Holocene, approximately 6,000 years ago, using all available numerical experiments from the Paleoclimate Modelling intercomparison Project. Compared to the reference period, both the mid-Holocene GMA and GMP increased in the majority of the 35 models chosen for analysis according to their ability, averaging 5.5 and 4.2 %, respectively, which were mainly due to the increase in monsoon area and precipitation over the boreal land and austral ocean. The mid-Holocene GMPI decreased in most models and by an average of 1.2 %, mainly due to the decrease in monsoon precipitation intensity over the boreal ocean and austral land. The mid-Holocene GMA, GMP, and GMPI all showed opposite changes both between the land and ocean in the northern or southern hemisphere and between the boreal and austral land or ocean. Orbital-induced changes in large-scale meridional temperature gradient and land-sea thermal contrast are the underlying mechanisms, and the presence of an interactive ocean has an amplifying effect in the boreal land monsoon areas overall. Qualitatively, the model-data comparison indicates agreement in the boreal land monsoon areas and South America but disagreement in southern Africa and northern Australia.

4) Tian, Z., and D. Jiang, 2015: Mid-Holocene ocean feedback on global monsoon area and precipitation. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 8, 29-32, doi:10.3878/AOSL20140068 <摘要> PDF

Mid-Holocene ocean feedback on global monsoon area, global monsoon precipitation (GMP), and GMP intensity (GMPI) was investigated by a set of numerical experiments performed with the Community Climate System Model version 4. Results showed that ocean feedback induced an increase in land monsoon area for northern Africa but a decrease for Asia and North and South America, and led to an increase in ocean monsoon area for the western Indian Ocean and southeastern Pacific but a decrease for the eastern Indian Ocean, tropical western Pacific, and tropical West Atlantic between the mid-Holocene and pre-industrial period. Dynamic ocean-induced changes in GMP and GMPI were 10.9 x 10^9 m^3/d and -0.11 mm/d between the two periods, respectively. Ocean feedback induced consistent change between the Northern and Southern Hemisphere land or ocean but opposite change between land and ocean in the Northern or Southern Hemisphere monsoon areas for monsoon precipitation. The mid-Holocene summer changes in meridional temperature gradient and land-sea thermal contrast were the underlying mechanisms.

5) 田芝平,姜大膀, 2015: 全新世中期和末次冰盛期中国季风区面积和季风降水变化. 科学通报, 60, 400-410, doi:10.1360/N972014-00718 <摘要> PDF

使用国际古气候模拟比较计划第1-3阶段中共61个气候模式的数值试验结果,首先定量评估了它们对于当代中国年平均、夏季和冬季降水气候态的模拟能力,而后根据择优选取的26和16个气候模式分别对全新世中期和末次冰盛期中国季风区面积、季风降水以及季风降水强度变化进行了集中研究。结果表明:相对于参考时期,全新世中期中国季风区面积、季风降水及其强度分别在26、26和22个模式中模拟增加,平均增幅依次为10.7%、18.7%和7.3%,这主要是源于轨道强迫所导致的夏季经向温度梯度的减小以及夏季东亚与临近海域间热力对比的增大,海洋反馈的作用相对有限;上述模拟结果与季风区内的地质记录基本相符。在末次冰盛期,中国季风区面积和季风降水在15个模式中减小、季风降水强度在所有16个模式中减小,平均减幅依次为7.7%、25.1%和14.3%,夏季经向温度梯度的增加以及纬向和经向陆地和海洋间热力对比的减小是其内在动力学机制,海洋反馈有一定的抑制作用;以上模拟结果与季风区内较为有限的地质记录是定性一致的。

6) Jiang, D., Z. Tian, X. Lang, M. Kageyama, and G. Ramstein, 2015: The concept of global monsoon applied to the last glacial maximum: A multi-model analysis. Quaternary Science Reviews, 126, 126-139 <摘要> PDF

The last glacial maximum (LGM, ca. 21,000 years ago) has been extensively investigated for better understanding of past glacial climates. Global-scale monsoon changes, however, have not yet been determined. In this study, we examine global monsoon area (GMA) and precipitation (GMP) as well as GMP intensity (GMPI) at the LGM using the experiments of 17 climate models chosen from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) according to their ability to reproduce the present global monsoon climate. Compared to the reference period (referring to the present day, ca. 1985, for three atmospheric plus two atmosphere-slab ocean models and the pre-industrial period, ca. 1750, for 12 fully coupled atmosphere-ocean or atmosphere-ocean-vegetation models), the LGM monsoon area increased over land and decreased over the oceans. The boreal land monsoon areas generally shifted southward, while the northern boundary of land monsoon areas retreated southward over southern Africa and South America. Both the LGM GMP and GMPI decreased in most of the models. The GMP decrease mainly resulted from the reduced monsoon precipitation over the oceans, while the GMPI decrease was derived from the weakened intensity of monsoon precipitation over land and the boreal ocean. Quantitatively, the LGM GMP deficit was due to, first, the GMA reduction and, second, the GMPI weakening. In response to the LGM large ice sheets and lower greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, the global surface and tropospheric temperatures cooled, the boreal summer meridional temperature gradient increased, and the summer land-sea thermal contrast at 40S-70N decreased. These are the underlying dynamic mechanisms for the LGM monsoon changes. Qualitatively, simulations agree with reconstructions in all land monsoon areas except in the western part of northern Australia where disagreements occur and in South America and the southern part of southern Africa where there is uncertainty in reconstructions. Simulations do not support an inter-hemispheric anti-phasing of monsoon intensity change as suggested by proxy data.

7) Li, X., D. Jiang, Z. Zhang, R. Zhang, Z. Tian, and Q. Yan, 2015: Mid-Pliocene westerlies from PlioMIP simulations. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 32, 909-923 <摘要> PDF

The midlatitude westerlies are one of the major components of the global atmospheric circulation. They play an important role in midlatitude weather and climate, and are particularly significant in interpreting aeolian sediments. In this study, we analyzed the behavior and the possible mechanism involved in the change of the westerlies, mainly in terms of the jet stream position, in the mid-Pliocene warm period (3.3 to 3.0 million years ago) using simulations of 15 climate models from the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project (PlioMIP). Compared to the reference period, the mid-Pliocene midlatitude westerlies generally shifted poleward (approximately 3.6◦ of latitude in the Northern Hemisphere and 1.9◦ of latitude in the Southern Hemisphere at 850 hPa level) with a dipole pattern. The dipole pattern of the tropospheric zonal wind anomalies was closely related to the change of the tropospheric meridional temperature gradient as a result of thermal structure adjustment. The poleward shift of the midlatitude westerly jet corresponded to the poleward shift of the mean meridional circulation. The sea surface temperatures and sea ice may have affected the simulated temperature structure and zonal winds, causing the spread of the westerly anomalies in the mid-Pliocene between the atmosphere-only and coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model simulations.

8) Tian, Z., and D. Jiang, 2015: Revisiting mid-Holocene temperature over China using PMIP3 simulations. Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 8, 358-364, doi:10.3878/AOSL20150040 <摘要> PDF

Using the simulations performed by 15 climate models under the latest protocol of the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) Phase 3 (PMIP3), the authors revisited the annual and seasonal temperature changes over China during the mid-Holocene. Similar to the previous results produced by PMIP Phase 1 (PMIP1) and 2 (PMIP2) models, 14 (15) of the 15 PMIP3 models reproduced colder annual (boreal winter and spring) temperature in response to mid-Holocene insolation changes, with an average cooling of 0.33 K (1.31 K and 1.58 K) over China. The mid-Holocene boreal summer (autumn) temperature increased in all (13) of the 15 PMIP3 models, with an average warming of 1.02 K (0.61 K) at the national scale. Those changes simulated by the PMIP3 models were similar to those from the PMIP2 simulations but generally weaker than those from the PMIP1 models. A considerable mismatch still existed between the simulated cooling by the PMIP3 models and the reconstructed warming for annual and winter temperatures over China during the mid-Holocene, as was also the case between the previous PMIP1/2 simulations and proxy data.

9) Tian, Z., and D. Jiang, 2013: Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia. Climate of the Past, 9, 2153-2171, doi:10.5194/cp-9-2153-2013 <摘要> PDF

Mid-Holocene ocean and vegetation feedbacks over East Asia are investigated by a set of numerical experiments performed with the version 4 of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4). With reference to the pre-industrial period, most of the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal surface surface-air temperature and precipitation changes are found to result from a direct response of the atmosphere to insolation forcing, while dynamic ocean and vegetation modulate regional climate of East Asia to some extent. Because of its thermal inertia, the dynamic ocean induced an additional warming of 0.2 K for the annual mean, 0.5 K in winter (December-February), 0.0003 K in summer (June-August), and 1.0 K in autumn (September-November), but a cooling of 0.6 K in spring (March-May) averaged over China, and it counteracted (amplified) the direct effect of insolation forcing for the annual mean and in winter and autumn (spring) for that period. The dynamic vegetation had an area-average impact of no more than 0.4 K on the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal temperatures over China, with an average cooling of 0.2 K for the annual mean. On the other hand, ocean feedback induced a small increase of precipitation in winter (0.04 mm/day) and autumn (0.05 mm/day), but a reduction for the annual mean (0.14 mm/day) and in spring (0.29 mm/day) and summer (0.34 mm/day) over China, while it also suppressed the East Asian summer monsoon rainfall. The effect of dynamic vegetation on the mid-Holocene annual and seasonal precipitation was comparatively small, ranging from -0.03 mm/day to 0.06 mm/day averaged over China. In comparison, the CCSM4 simulated annual and winter cooling over China agrees with simulations within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), but the results are contrary to the warming reconstructed from multiple proxy data for the mid-Holocene. Ocean feedback narrows this model-data mismatch, whereas vegetation feedback plays an opposite role but with a level of uncertainty.

10) Jiang, D., Z. Tian, and X. Lang, 2013: Mid-Holocene net precipitation changes over China: Model-data comparison. Quaternary Science Reviews, 82, 102-120 <摘要> PDF

Many efforts have been made to reconstruct the moisture conditions over China during the mid-Holocene, approximately 6000 calendar years ago. However, most of them have been performed at the single site level or local scale, and the nationwide distribution of the mid-Holocene precipitation and net precipitation (precipitation minus evaporation) changes from both proxy data and simulations remains unclear. Here we first selected 36 out of 51 climate models participating in the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) for their demonstrable ability to simulate the baseline climate and for the availability of evaporation data. Our analysis of the ensemble mean results of the 36 models shows that the mid-Holocene annual precipitation, evaporation, and net precipitation were 3.0%, 0.9%, and 6.9% more than the baseline period, respectively, and seasonally all three variables decreased in boreal winter and spring but increased in boreal summer and autumn on the national scale. For that period, both the pattern and magnitude of the above changes differed between the models and the sub-regions, and the interactive ocean effect had little impact overall on the country. Compared with the wetter-than-present climates derived from the records at 64 out of 69 sites across China, the models agreed qualitatively with the multi-proxy data in most parts of China, except Xinjiang and the areas between the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze and Yellow River valleys, where drier-than-baseline climates were obtained from the 36 models.

11) Jiang, D., and Z. Tian, 2013: East Asian monsoon change for the 21st century: Results of CMIP3 and CMIP5 models. Chinese Science Bulletin, 58, 1427-1435 <摘要> PDF

Forty-two climate models participating in the coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phases 3 and 5 were first evaluated in terms of their ability to simulate the present climatology of the East Asian winter (December-February) and summer (June-August) monsoons. The East Asian winter and summer monsoon changes over the 21st century were then projected using the results of 31 and 29 reliable climate models under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) mid-range A1B scenario or the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) mid-low-range RCP4.5 scenario, respectively. Results showed that the East Asian winter monsoon changes little over time as a whole relative to the reference period 1980-1999. Regionally, it weakens (strengthens) north (south) of about 25N in East Asia, which results from atmospheric circulation changes over the western North Pacific and Northeast Asia owing to the weakening and northward shift of the Aleutian Low, and from decreased north-west-southeast thermal and sea level pressure differences across Northeast Asia. In summer, monsoon strengthens slightly in East China over the 21st century as a consequence of an increased land-sea thermal contrast between the East Asian continent and the adjacent western North Pacific and South China Sea.

12) 田芝平,姜大膀, 2013: 不同分辨率CCSM4对东亚和中国气候模拟能力分析. 大气科学, 37, 171-186, doi:10.3878/j.issn.1006-9895.2012.12050 <摘要> PDF

本文利用通用气候系统模式CCSM4在三种水平分辨率下的工业化革命前期气候模拟试验,结合观测和再分析资料,比较了各分辨率下模式对中国温度和降水、东亚海平面气压和850hPa风场的模拟能力,综合评价了模式分辨率对东亚和中国气候模拟的影响。结果表明,三种分辨率对中国温度均具有很好的模拟能力,除春季外,低分辨率(T31,约3.75度X3.75度)对全年温度的模拟能力均要稍好于中(f19,约1.9度X2.5度)、高(f09,约0.9度X1.25度)分辨率;各分辨率对中国降水的模拟能力远不如温度,除冬季外全年都出现的中部地区虚假降水并未因为模式分辨率提高而得到本质改善;对于东亚海平面气压场,低分辨率在冬季模拟能力相对最好,中等分辨率在夏季相对较好,而高分辨率的模拟能力均表现最差;低分辨率对850hPa东亚冬季风和夏季风的模拟能力均要好于中、高分辨率,而两种较高分辨率的模拟能力则比较接近。总的来说,低分辨率CCSM4在东亚和中国气候模拟中表现出了较大优势,加之其计算代价小,适合进行需要较长时间积分的气候模拟研究。

13) Jiang, D., X. Lang, Z. Tian, and L. Ju, 2013: Mid-Holocene East Asian summer monsoon strengthening: Insights from Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) simulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 369, 422-429 <摘要> PDF

The East Asian summer (June-July-August) monsoon (EASM) is typically thought to have been stronger during interglacial periods based on spatially sparse proxy data. On a large scale, however,whether this viewis true and if so, its underlying dynamic mechanisms remain unclear. Using all pertinent experiments within the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), here we present an analysis of the EASM during the mid-Holocene, 6000 years ago. Supporting the paleodata, the mid-Holocene EASM, as measured by regionally averaged meridional wind at 850 hPa, became stronger than the baseline period in 27 out of 28 PMIP models with a demonstrable ability to simulate the modern EASM climatology. On average, the EASM strengthened by 32% across all themodels and by a largermagnitude in 23 coupledmodels (35%) than in five atmosphericmodels (20%). It is proposed that an enhanced land-sea thermal contrast, and hence sea level pressure gradient, between the East Asian continent and adjacent oceans as a result of orbital forcingwas responsible for the EASM strengthening during the mid-Holocene.

14) Sui Y., D. Jiang, and Z. Tian, 2013: Latest update of the climatology and changes in the seasonal distribution of precipitation over China. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 113, 599-610 <摘要> PDF

Based on daily precipitation data from 524 meteorological stations in China during the period 1960-2009, the climatology and the temporal changes (trends, interannual, and decadal variations) in the proportion of seasonal precipitation to the total annual precipitation were analyzed on both national and regional scales. Results indicated that (1) for the whole country, the climatology in the seasonal distribution of precipitation showed that the proportion accounted for 55% in summer (June-August), for around 20% in both spring (March-May) and autumn (September-November), and around 5% in winter (December-February). But the spatial features were region-dependent. The primary precipitation regime, 'summer-autumn-spring-winter', was located in central and eastern regions which were north of the Huaihe River, in eastern Tibet, and in western Southwest China. The secondary regime, 'summer-spring-autumn-winter', appeared in the regions south of the Huaihe River, except Jiangnan where spring precipitation dominated, and the south eastern Hainan Island where autumn precipitation prevailed. (2) For the temporal changes on the national scale, first, where the trends were concerned, the proportion of winter precipitation showed a significantly increasing trend, while that of the other three seasons did not show any significant trends. Second, for the interannual variation, the variability in summer was the largest among the four seasons and that in winter was the smallest. Then, on the decadal scale, China experienced a sharp decrease only in the proportion of summer precipitation in 2000. (3) For the temporal changes on the regional scale, all the concerned 11 geographic regions of China underwent increasing trends in the proportion of winter precipitation. For spring, it decreased over the regions south of the Yellow River but increased elsewhere. The trend in the proportion of summer precipitation was generally opposite to that of spring. For autumn, it decreased over the other ten regions except Inner Mongolia with no trend. It is noted that the interannual variability of precipitation seasonality is large over North China, Huanghuai, and Jianghuai; its decadal variability is large over the other regions, especially over those regions south of the Yangtze River.

15) 张冉,姜大膀,田芝平, 2013: 中上新世是否存在“永久厄尔尼诺”状态——一个耦合模式结果. 第四纪研究, 33, 1130-1137 <摘要> PDF

根据中上新世模拟比较计划(PlioMIP)试验设计方案, 利用通用气候系统模式(CCSM4) 低分辨率版本就该时期是否存在‘永久厄尔尼诺’状态给予了数值模拟研究。结果表明, 相对于工业革命前期,中上新世海洋表面温度(SST)在赤道太平洋地区东部比西部增温显著,导致赤道太平洋地区东西方向上的SST梯度减弱;然而,模拟的中上新世热带太平洋SST仍然以厄尔尼诺/南方涛动(ENSO)循环为主, 且ENSO循环并未减弱, 换言之, 试验结果不支持中上新世存在‘永久厄尔尼诺’状态。

16) Jiang, D., X. Lang, Z. Tian, and T. Wang, 2012: Considerable model-data mismatch in temperature over China during the mid-Holocene: Results of PMIP simulations. Journal of Climate, 25, 4135-4153 <摘要> PDF

Using the experiments undertaken by 36 climate models participating in the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP), this study examines annual and seasonal surface temperatures over China during the mid-Holocene. Compared to the present or preindustrial climate, 35 out of the 36 PMIP models reproduced colder-than-baseline annual temperature, with an average cooling of 0.4 K, during that period. Seasonal temperature change followed closely the change in incoming solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere over China during the mid-Holocene. Temperature was reduced (elevated) in boreal winter and spring (summer) in all of the PMIP models, with an average of 1.4 K (1.0 K) at the national scale. Colder (warmer)-than-baseline temperatures were derived from 14 of the 16 atmosphere-only (18 of the 20 coupled) models during the mid-Holocene boreal autumn. Interactive ocean was found to lead to a warming effect on annual (0.3 K), boreal winter (0.5 K), and boreal autumn (0.7 K) temperatures, with reference to the atmosphere-only models. Interactive vegetation had little impact in terms of six pairs of coupled models with and without vegetation effects. The above results are in stark contrast to warmer-than-present annual and winter climate conditions as derived from multiproxy data for the mid-Holocene. Coupled models generally perform better than atmosphere-only models.

17) 田芝平,姜大膀,张冉,隋月, 2012: CCSM4.0的长期积分试验及其对东亚和中国气候模拟的评估. 大气科学, 36, 619-632 <摘要> PDF

本文利用通用气候系统模式CCSM4.0的低分辨率(T31,约3.75度X3.75度)版本进行了700年的长期积分试验,将中国地表气温、降水及东亚海平面气压、500 hPa和100 hPa位势高度、850 hPa风场的最后100年模拟结果与观测和再分析资料进行了定性比较,并对前三个要素的不同统计量值进行了定量计算,系统评估了CCSM4.0对东亚及我国气候的模拟能力。结果表明,模式能够合理模拟各变量的基本分布形态,但幅度与观测有所差别,其中地表气温的模拟效果最好,降水的相对最差。具体而言,地表气温空间分布型与观测一致,但全年青藏高原地表气温模拟值偏高,位于塔里木盆地的暖中心未能模拟出来;降水空间分布型模拟较差,除冬季不明显之外,我国中南部全年都存在一个虚假降水中心,并在夏季达到最强;冬季东亚地区海陆热力对比大于观测,夏季海平面气压场整体模拟效果不如冬季;模式对冬、夏季500 hPa东亚大槽和西北太平洋副热带高压的主要特征刻画较好,但模拟结果整体比观测偏强;夏季100 hPa南亚高压强度与观测接近,但高压范围及中心位置存在偏差;850 hPa东亚冬季风和夏季风环流模拟较好,但冬季西北气流偏强,夏季索马里越赤道气流偏弱、我国东部西南气流偏强。总的来说,CCSM4.0对东亚和我国大尺度气候特征具备合理的模拟能力,尽管在定量上还存在着不足。

18) Zhang, R., D. Jiang, X. Liu, and Z. Tian, 2012: Modeling the climate effects of different subregional uplifts within the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau on Asian summer monsoon evolution. Chinese Science Bulletin, 57, 4617-4626 <摘要> PDF

Considering the different uplifting time of different subregions of the Himalaya-Tibetan Plateau (TP), a series of numerical simulations have been conducted with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research to explore the effects of the phased tectonic uplift of the Himalaya-TP on the evolution of Asian summer monsoons. The results show that the uplifts of the Himalaya and northern TP significantly affect the evolutions of South Asian summer monsoon and northern East Asian summer monsoon respectively. That is, the tectonic uplift of the Himalaya intensifies the South Asian summer monsoon circulation and increases the precipitation in South Asia, whereas the uplift of the northern TP intensifies the northern East Asian summer monsoon circulation and increases the precipitation in northern East Asia. Compared with previous simulations, current comparative analyses of modeling results for different subregional uplifts within the Himalaya-TP help deepen our understanding of the evolutionary history of Asian monsoons.

19) Jiang, D., X. Lang, Z. Tian, and D. Guo, 2011: Last glacial maximum climate over China from PMIP simulations. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 309, 347-357 <摘要> PDF

Using the results of 25 climate models under the framework of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) and available proxy data, this study examines the regional climate of China during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM: 21,000 years ago). Compared to the baseline climate, results show that annual surface temperature decreased by 2.00-7.00 K in China during that period, with an average of 4.46 K, for the ensemble mean of all models. Annual precipitation and evaporation during the LGM were 5-40% less than the baseline values, with an average reduction of 20% (0.60 mm/day) and a reduction of 21% (0.41 mm/day) at the national scale, based on results from 15 out of the 25 models. These models were selected for their ability to simulate the modern precipitation climatology and for the availability of suitable evaporation data. Both the geographical distribution and magnitude of changes in surface temperature, precipitation, and evaporation during the LGM varied with the seasons and with the models, particularly at the sub-regional scale. Model-data comparisons revealed that the 25 models successfully reproduced the surface cooling trend during the LGM, but they failed to reproduce its magnitude in all four regions of comparison, particularly in the Hexi Corridor and in North and Northeast China. The simulations with computed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were in better agreement with proxy estimates of surface temperature than those with prescribed SSTs. On the other hand, large-scale LGM-minus-baseline anomalies in annual precipitation minus evaporation agreed well, in a qualitative manner, with lake status-based reconstructions of changes in annual water budgets in East China and the region of 35-42N, 74-97&deg;E. On the eastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, drier climates from the 15 models agreed with pollen-based reconstructions. For most parts of West China excluding the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the simulations with computed (prescribed) SSTs are consistent (inconsistent) with reconstructed moister conditions.
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